An update on available pain medications

  • Elzbieta Osuch Sefako Makghato Health Sciences University
  • André Marais University of Pretoria
Keywords: pain, paracetamol, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, opioids, antidepressants, anticonvulsants


Pain is a complex interaction of sensory, emotional and behavioural factors. Chronic pain is among the most common reasons for seeking medical attention. In contrast to acute pain, where the goal is primary pain relief, the effective management of chronic pain is complex and not fully understood. Multimodal pain therapy is often required to treat chronic or persistent pain syndromes. These include pharmacological agents, physical interventions, behavioural changes and surgical approaches. Pharmacological interventions are the most widely used therapeutic options to treat acute and persistent pain.

Author Biographies

Elzbieta Osuch, Sefako Makghato Health Sciences University
Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics School of Medicine Sefako Makghato Health Sciences University
André Marais, University of Pretoria
Specialist Clinical Pharmacologist Department of Pharmacology University of Pretoria
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